April 2, 2019
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Yuzu Kosho Was Made for…Fish Tacos?

The versatile Japanese condiment made from green chiles and yuzu peel works with soba noodles, but it’s also perfect for grilled corn and Mexican food.

Intense spice is not something we tend to associate with the oftentimes subtle Japanese home cooking, but yuzu kosho breaks all the rules. The fermented citrus, chile, and salt paste hails from Kyushu, the southernmost main island of Japan, where families have been making it for generations.

Kyushu had traded with Thailand and the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia) dating back to the 17th century, around the same time chile peppers arrived in Southeast Asia and Korea from the Americas via Portuguese traders. Chiles became a staple in local cuisine, rare in a country that wasn’t traditionally known for spicy food.

There’s no record of when yuzu kosho was first made, but families had been passing down their own recipes long before the 1950s, when yuzu kosho was first mass-produced. Home cooks would combine chiles with the aromatic and highly coveted yuzu fruit, which looks like a rounder and bumpier lemon and has a flavor that is a cross between a Meyer lemon and a lime. What was once a homemade paste is now widely sold in Japan, used to top off grilled fish and vegetables, stirred into miso soup, served alongside nabemono, and lightly dabbed on sashimi.

In the U.S., you can find jars of this heady condiment in Japanese grocery stores, occasionally in gourmet markets, or online. But at an average price of around $10 for a two- or three-ounce jar, it can be a bit cost-prohibitive, especially if you can’t stop using it on everything you cook and run out within a week. The bigger dilemma for me, however, was that store-bought yuzu kosho pastes weren’t as spicy or aromatic as the house-made yuzu kosho I’d tried in restaurants in Japan. It seemed that the ideal yuzu kosho would have to be homemade.

Yuzu fruit is near impossible to find in the U.S., unless you live in California and can either find it occasionally in farmers markets or Japanese markets, or have a nice yard for growing your own. For the rest of us, there are great workarounds. For the citrus peel, you can grate Meyer lemons and limes, then save the Meyer lemon juices. Or you can reserve the juices for another use and use a bit of bottled yuzu juice, although that is more costly.

In Japan, there are a few different kinds of green chiles used, including Thai spur chiles, which are also relatively easy to find in Southeast Asian markets in the States. They are also known as prik chee fah, Bangkok chiles, or a number of other names, but you might recognize them as the most common long, skinny fresh chiles sold in Asian markets in the U.S. For a mellower paste, you can use green jalapeños instead. If you prefer your paste slightly fruitier, you can make yuzu kosho with red chiles, though the unripe green chiles are more traditional in Japan as red ones are mostly found in summer and early fall.

Ideally you would use a mortar and pestle and a bit of elbow grease to grind together the zest, juice, chiles, and salt, since it’s easy to obliterate the great natural texture of the zest and seeds in a food processor. But if you have a lower setting on your processor that isn’t overly zealous, that could also work. The homemade yuzu kosho will be spiciest right after you make it; if it’s stored in the fridge for two to three days, the heat mellows a tiny bit, and the salted citrus flavors will intensify. You can also try this with red chiles for a slightly fruitier and less sharp yuzu kosho.

Once you have this paste made, go ahead and dab (or slather!) it on all your noodles, steamed or grilled fish and meat, and blistered shishito peppers. The version from a jar is a little thicker, but it can be easily thinned out with water or another liquid. It’s also a great sidekick for gyoza, either as part of a dipping sauce or mixed into the filling. But don’t feel the need to stick to Japanese, or even Asian, dishes. Try a little in shakshuka in lieu of fresh chiles, cayenne, or harissa. Stir some in your next pot of bean chili. Use it in place of your usual hot sauce for buffalo wings. And I would 100 percent encourage you to try yuzu kosho in Mexican food, where the citrus and green chile flavors fit in naturally and can really complement and dress up your favorite dishes.

It is fantastic with elotes or sopa de lima, but my all-time favorite unconventional use for yuzu kosho is with fish tacos. First I’ll mix yuzu kosho with mayonnaise, rice vinegar, and salt, then toss it with shredded cabbage and carrots for a slaw. Then I’ll make the tacos, searing firm white fish with some oil, cumin, and ancho or chipotle powder, and transfer the fish to heated corn tortillas. Throw on the yuzu kosho slaw and some avocados and you have a slightly unorthodox Mexican dish with a fragrant citrusy kick that makes you pause and wonder for a moment before diving in.


  • 4 Meyer lemons
  • 2 limes
  • ¼ cup yuzu juice (or 1/3 cup Meyer lemon juice)
  • 2 fresh green Thai spur chiles or jalapeño chiles, seeded for a mellower paste
  • ½ teaspoon coarse salt

From Red Hot Kitchen, by Diana Kuan

An intensely citrusy and aromatic Japanese hot sauce, yuzu kosho is used in Japan to enliven a variety of foods, including sashimi, grilled chicken, miso soup, and hot-pot dishes. It traces its origins to the southern Japanese island of Kyushu, where kosho refers to chiles in the local dialect. The area had traded with Korea and Southeast Asia for centuries, which may have an influence on the creation of this hot sauce in a country not known for spicy cuisine.

These days, yuzu kosho has been embraced by not only Japanese chefs but also chefs in the West who are discovering its versatility as both a cooking ingredient and condiment. And it takes less than 10 minutes to make in the food processor, or a bit longer if you want to roll up your sleeves and tackle it with a mortar and pestle. Traditionally, it is made by combining yuzu zest and juice with green chiles and salt to make a tangy, spicy paste with a texture similar to that of pesto. The flavor is most intense right after you make it and mellows out the longer it sits. I love using it to add a spicy and zesty punch to noodle soups, rice dishes, vegetables, chicken, and fish. And don’t feel like you have to stick to Japanese food. I’ve found the hot citrus flavor also makes a great match for spicy breakfasts or Mexican food (see Spicy Fish Tacos with Yuzu Kosho Slaw.)

  1. Zest the Meyer lemons and limes with a microplane or a grater until you get about 1/2 cup of zest. If you don't have yuzu juice, juice the Meyer lemons until you get ⅓ cup of juice. (Save the remaining Meyer lemons and limes for another use.)
  2. Combine the zest, juice, chiles, and salt in a mortar or food processor on the lowest setting. Grind with a pestle or process until you have a rough yellowish-green paste with a texture similar to pesto. Store in a jar with a tight-sealing lid for 2 to 3 days in the refrigerator for the flavors to develop. The yuzu kosho will last in the fridge for 1 to 2 months.


  • yuzu kosho slaw
  • 2 cups shredded red cabbage
  • 1 medium carrot, grated
  • ¾ cups mayonnaise
  • 3 tablespoons yuzu kosho
  • 1 tablespoon rice vinegar
  • ¼ teaspoon salt
  • fish tacos
  • 16 corn tortillas
  • 1 pound firm white fish fillets, such as cod, tilapia, mahi mahi, or snapper
  • 3 tablespoons olive oil
  • 1 teaspoon ground cumin
  • 1 teaspoon ancho chile or chipotle chile powder
  • ½ teaspoon salt
  • ¼ teaspoon freshly ground black pepper
  • 2 ripe avocados, thinly sliced
  • cilantro, roughly chopped for garnish
  • 2-3 limes, cut into wedges

From Red Hot Kitchen, by Diana Kuan

The citrus and green chili flavors in yuzu kosho make the zesty Japanese chile paste a wonderful, if slightly unorthodox, ingredient for fish tacos. I like to throw together a slaw flavored with yuzu kosho, mayo, and rice vinegar to serve on warm corn tortillas with the pan-seared fish (which can also be grilled if you’d like to make these for an outdoor cookout.)

  1. Make the slaw: In a large bowl, combine the cabbage and carrots. In a small bowl, whisk together the mayonnaise, yuzu kosho, rice vinegar, and salt. Pour the mixture over the cabbage and carrots and toss to coat. Set aside.
  2. Preheat the oven to 300°F. Wrap the tortillas in 4 stacks of 4 tortillas each in foil. Warm the tortillas in the oven for 15 minutes to 20 minutes.
  3. When you're ready to make the fish tacos, lay the fish fillets on a clean work surface and brush 1 tablespoon of the olive oil over the top. Sprinkle evenly with the cumin, ancho powder, salt, and pepper.
  4. Heat a nonstick skillet over medium heat. Working in batches, add another 1 tablespoon of the olive oil and swirl to coat the bottom. Add the fish fillets and sear until lightly golden on the bottom, 3 to 4 minutes. Carefully flip the fillets and sear on the second side until the fish is opaque and cooked through and flakes off easily with a fork, another 2 to 3 minutes. Transfer to a plate and cover with foil to keep warm while you sear the remaining fish.
  5. On a clean work surface, use a fork to shred the fish fillets. Lay out the tortillas in 8 stacks of 2 each (doubling up the corn tortillas makes each taco sturdier.) Divide the fish, yuzu slaw, and avocado slices to make 8 tacos. Top with cilantro (if using) and serve with limes on the side.

Diana Kuan

Diana Kuan is a food writer and photographer based in Brooklyn. She is the author of Red Hot Kitchen, on cooking with Asian hot sauces, and The Chinese Takeout Cookbook, on Chinese food and culture in America. Her work has also appeared in Food & Wine, Time Out New York, and The Boston Globe, among other publications. In addition to writing and photography, Diana has taught cooking classes for the past 10 years in both Beijing and New York. Her favorite foods are dumplings, ramen, and tacos, usually with hot sauce on the side.

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